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Azure Classic v5.80.0 published on Monday, Jun 10, 2024 by Pulumi

Azure Classic: Installation & Configuration

azure logo

We recommend using Azure Native.

Azure Classic v5.80.0 published on Monday, Jun 10, 2024 by Pulumi

    To provision resources with the Pulumi Azure provider, you need to have Azure credentials. Your Azure credentials are never sent to Pulumi.com. Pulumi uses the Azure SDK and the credentials in your environment to authenticate requests from your computer to Azure.


    The Azure Classic provider is available as a package in all Pulumi languages:

    Authentication Methods

    Pulumi can authenticate to Azure via several methods:

    • Azure CLI
    • OpenID Connect (OIDC)
    • Service Principal with a client secret or certificate
    • Managed Service Identity (MSI)

    If you’re running the Pulumi CLI locally, in a developer scenario, we recommend using the Azure CLI. For team environments, particularly in Continuous Integration, one of the other options is strongly recommended.

    Authenticating using the CLI will not work for Service Principal logins (e.g., az login --service-principal). For such cases, authenticate using the Service Principal method instead.

    Authenticate using the CLI

    The CLI instructions assume you’re using the Azure CLI (az).

    Log in to the Azure CLI and Pulumi will automatically use your credentials:

    $ az login
    A web browser has been opened at https://login.microsoftonline.com/organizations/oauth2/v2.0/authorize. Please continue the login in the web browser. If no web browser is available or if the web browser fails to open, use device code flow with `az login --use-device-code`.

    Do as instructed to log in. After completed, az login will return and you are ready to go.

    If you’re using Government or China Clouds, you’ll need to configure the Azure CLI to work with that cloud. Do so by running az cloud set --name <Cloud>, where <Cloud> is one of AzureUSGovernment or AzureChinaCloud.

    The Azure CLI, and thus Pulumi, will use the Default Subscription by default. You can override the subscription by setting your subscription ID to the id output from az account list’s output:

    $ az account list

    Pick out the <id> from the list and run:

    $ az account set --subscription=<id>

    Authenticate with OpenID Connect (OIDC)

    OIDC allows you to establish a trust relationship between Azure and another identity provider such as GitHub or Azure DevOps. Once established, your program can exchange an ID token issued by the identity provider for an Azure token. Your Pulumi program running in the identity provider’s service, for instance, GitHub Actions CI or Azure DevOps Pipelines, can then access Azure, without storing any secrets in GitHub.

    OIDC Azure Configuration

    To configure the trust relationship in Azure, please refer to this guide. This needs to be set up only once.

    OIDC Pulumi Provider Configuration

    To use OIDC, either set the Pulumi configuration useOidc via pulumi config set azure:useOidc true or set the environment variable ARM_USE_OIDC to “true”.

    Next, supply the Pulumi provider with the ID token to exchange for an Azure token. This step depends on the service (identity provider) your program will run on.

    • On GitHub, you don’t need to configure anything since GitHub sets the relevant environment variables by default and the Pulumi provider reads them automatically.
    • Other identity providers offer a way to access the ID token. For instance, in GitLab CI/CD jobs, the ID token is available via the environment variable GITLAB_OIDC_TOKEN. Configure the Pulumi provider to use the ID token by assigning it to the Pulumi configuration azure:oidcToken or the environment variable ARM_OIDC_TOKEN.

    If your identity provider does not offer an ID token directly but it does offer a way to exchange a local bearer token for an ID token, you can configure this exchange as well. This is a rare case that you won’t need unless the identity provider’s documentation explicitly requests it. In that case, set one of the following pairs:

    • both the azure:oidcRequestToken and azure:oidcRequestUrl Pulumi configuration values, or
    • both the ARM_OIDC_REQUEST_TOKEN and ARM_OIDC_REQUEST_URL environment variables.

    Finally, configure the client and tenant IDs of your Azure Active Directory application. Refer to the above Azure documentation on how to retrieve the IDs, and set them via Pulumi config as azure:clientId and azure:tenantId or via environment variables as ARM_CLIENT_ID and ARM_TENANT_ID.

    If you get the error “AADSTS70021: No matching federated identity record found for presented assertion”, this points to a configuration issue with the entity type and environment name described in the Azure documentation. Make sure they match your setup, e.g., the type “branch” and the correct branch name if CI runs against a fixed branch.

    OIDC Dynamic Credentials with Pulumi ESC

    In addition to configuring the Azure provider locally, you also have the option to centralize your configurations using Pulumi ESC (Environments, Secrets, and Configuration). Using this service will enable you to run Pulumi CLI commands with dynamically generated credentials, removing the need to configure and manage your credentials locally.

    To do this, you will need to complete the following steps:

    Configure OIDC between Pulumi and Azure

    Refer to the Configuring OpenID Connect for Azure Guide for the step-by-step process on how to do this.

    [Optional] Move Pulumi config to your ESC environment

    With Pulumi ESC, you can define and expose environment variables as shown below:

            clientId: <your-client-id>
            tenantId: <your-tenant-id>
            subscriptionId: <your-subscription-id>
            oidc: true
        ARM_USE_OIDC: 'true'
        ARM_CLIENT_ID: ${azure.login.clientId}
        ARM_TENANT_ID: ${azure.login.tenantId}
        ARM_OIDC_TOKEN: ${azure.login.oidc.token}
        ARM_SUBSCRIPTION_ID: ${azure.login.subscriptionId}
    To learn more about projecting environment variables in Pulumi ESC, refer to the relevant Pulumi ESC documentation.

    To expose configuration values to Pulumi IaC, you will need to add a second-level key named pulumiConfig and define your desired values underneath it. Further, if your workflow does not require the exposure of environment variables, you can also define those variables under the pulumiConfig block as shown below:

            clientId: <your-client-id>
            tenantId: <your-tenant-id>
            subscriptionId: <your-subscription-id>
            oidc: true
        azure:useOidc: 'true'
        azure:location: WestUS2
        azure:environment: <your-environment>
        azure:clientId: ${azure.login.clientId}
        azure:tenantId: ${azure.login.tenantId}
        azure:subscriptionId: ${azure.login.subscriptionId}
        azure:oidcToken: ${azure.login.oidc.token}

    This will ensure that those values are scoped only to your pulumi run.

    The configuration values under pulumiConfig can also be referenced directly from within your Pulumi program code. This is done using the same method to reference values from your project’s stack settings file. You can see examples of how to do this in the Accessing Configuration from Code section of the Pulumi documentation.
    Import your environment

    The last step is to update your project’s stack settings file (Pulumi.<stack-name>.yaml) to import your ESC environment as shown below:

      - <your-environment-name>

    Make sure to replace <your-environment-name> with the name of the ESC environment you created in the previous steps.

    You can test that your configuration is working by running the pulumi preview command. This will validate that your Azure resources can be deployed using the dynamically generated credentials in your environment file.

    Make sure that your local environment does not have Azure credentials configured before running this command. You can logout by running the az logout command.

    Authenticate using a Service Principal

    A Service Principal is an application in Azure Active Directory with a client ID and a tenant ID, exactly like the one used in the OIDC scenario. In this scenario, instead of a pre-configured trust relationship, a client secret is used to authenticate with Azure.

    Create your Service Principal and get your tokens

    To use a Service Principal, you must first create one. If you already have one, skip this section.

    You can create a Service Principal using the Azure CLI, using the Azure Cloud Shell, or using the Azure Portal.

    After creating a Service Principal, you will obtain three important tokens:

    • appId is the client ID
    • password is the client secret
    • tenant is the tenant ID

    For example, a common Service Principal as displayed by the Azure CLI looks something like this:

      "displayName": "ServicePrincipalName",
      "name": "http://ServicePrincipalName",

    You also need to obtain a Subscription ID. To retrieve your current Subscription ID, you can use:

    $ az account show --query id -o tsv

    To list all available subscriptions, you can use:

    $ az account list --query '[].{subscriptionName:name,subscriptionId:id}' -o tsv

    Make tokens available to Pulumi

    Once you have the Service Principal’s authorization tokens, choose one of the ways below to make them available to Pulumi:

    Set configuration using pulumi config

    Remember to pass --secret when setting clientSecret so that it is properly encrypted:

    $ pulumi config set azure:clientId <clientID>
    $ pulumi config set azure:clientSecret <clientSecret> --secret
    $ pulumi config set azure:tenantId <tenantID>
    $ pulumi config set azure:subscriptionId <subscriptionId>
    Set configuration using environment variables

    Configuration options

    Use pulumi config set azure:<option> or pass options to the constructor of new azure.Provider.

    environmentRequiredThe cloud environment to use. It can also be sourced from the ARM_ENVIRONMENT environment variable. Supported values are: public (default), usgovernment, china.
    locationOptionalThe location to use. ResourceGroups will consult this property for a default location, if one was not supplied explicitly.
    clientIdOptionalThe client ID to use. It can also be sourced from the ARM_CLIENT_ID environment variable.
    clientSecretOptionalThe client secret to use. It can also be sourced from the ARM_CLIENT_SECRET environment variable.
    msiEndpointOptionalThe REST endpoint to retrieve an MSI token from. Pulumi will attempt to discover this automatically but it can be specified manually here. It can also be sourced from the ARM_MSI_ENDPOINT environment variable.
    oidcRequestTokenOptionalThe token to exchange for OIDC authentication. It can also be sourced from the ARM_OIDC_REQUEST_TOKEN environment variable.
    oidcRequestUrlOptionalThe token exchange URL for OIDC authentication. It can also be sourced from the ARM_OIDC_REQUEST_URL environment variable.
    skipCredentialsValidationOptionalPrevents the provider from validating the given credentials. When set to true, skip_provider_registration is assumed. It can also be sourced from the ARM_SKIP_CREDENTIALS_VALIDATION environment variable; defaults to false.
    skipProviderRegistrationOptionalPrevents the provider from registering the ARM provider namespaces, this can be used if you don’t wish to give the Active Directory Application permission to register resource providers. It can also be sourced from the ARM_SKIP_PROVIDER_REGISTRATION environment variable; defaults to false.
    subscriptionIdOptionalThe subscription ID to use. It can also be sourced from the ARM_SUBSCRIPTION_ID environment variable.
    tenantIdOptionalThe tenant ID to use. It can also be sourced from the ARM_TENANT_ID environment variable.
    useMsiOptionalSet to true to authenticate using managed service identity. It can also be sourced from the ARM_USE_MSI environment variable.
    useOidcOptionalSet to true to authenticate using OIDC. It can also be sourced from the ARM_USE_OIDC environment variable.
    azure logo

    We recommend using Azure Native.

    Azure Classic v5.80.0 published on Monday, Jun 10, 2024 by Pulumi