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Google Cloud Classic v7.11.2 published on Wednesday, Feb 28, 2024 by Pulumi

Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) Cluster

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Google Cloud Classic v7.11.2 published on Wednesday, Feb 28, 2024 by Pulumi

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    This example deploys an Google Cloud Platform (GCP) Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) cluster, and deploys a Kubernetes Namespace and Deployment of NGINX

    Deploying the App

    To deploy your infrastructure, follow the below steps.


    1. Install Pulumi

    2. Install Node.js

    3. Install a package manager for Node.js, such as npm or Yarn.

    4. Install Google Cloud SDK (gcloud)

    5. Configure GCP Auth

      • Login using gcloud

        $ gcloud auth login
        $ gcloud config set project <YOUR_GCP_PROJECT_HERE>
        $ gcloud auth application-default login

      Note: This auth mechanism is meant for inner loop developer workflows. If you want to run this example in an unattended service account setting, such as in CI/CD, please follow instructions to configure your service account. The service account must have the role Kubernetes Engine Admin / container.admin.


    After cloning this repo, from this working directory, run these commands:

    1. Install the required Node.js packages:

      This installs the dependent packages needed for our Pulumi program.

      $ npm install
    2. Create a new Pulumi stack, which is an isolated deployment target for this example:

      This will initialize the Pulumi program in TypeScript.

      $ pulumi stack init
    3. Set the required GCP configuration variables:

      This sets configuration options and default values for our cluster.

      $ pulumi config set gcp:project <YOUR_GCP_PROJECT_HERE>
      $ pulumi config set gcp:zone us-west1-a     // any valid GCP Zone here
    4. Stand up the GKE cluster:

      To preview and deploy changes, run pulumi update and select “yes.”

      The update sub-command shows a preview of the resources that will be created and prompts on whether to proceed with the deployment. Note that the stack itself is counted as a resource, though it does not correspond to a physical cloud resource.

      You can also run pulumi up --diff to see and inspect the diffs of the overall changes expected to take place.

      Running pulumi up will deploy the GKE cluster. Note, provisioning a new GKE cluster takes between 3-5 minutes.

      $ pulumi update
      Previewing update (gke-demo):
      	Type                            Name                             Plan
      +   pulumi:pulumi:Stack             gcp-ts-gke-hello-world-gke-demo  create
      +   ├─ gcp:container:Cluster        helloworld                       create
      +   ├─ pulumi:providers:kubernetes  helloworld                       create
      +   ├─ kubernetes:core:Namespace    helloworld                       create
      +   ├─ kubernetes:apps:Deployment   helloworld                       create
      +   └─ kubernetes:core:Service      helloworld                       create
      	+ 6 to create
      Updating (gke-demo):
      	Type                            Name                             Status
      +   pulumi:pulumi:Stack             gcp-ts-gke-hello-world-gke-demo  created
      +   ├─ gcp:container:Cluster        helloworld                       created
      +   ├─ pulumi:providers:kubernetes  helloworld                       created
      +   ├─ kubernetes:core:Namespace    helloworld                       created
      +   ├─ kubernetes:apps:Deployment   helloworld                       created
      +   └─ kubernetes:core:Service      helloworld                       created
      	clusterName    : "helloworld-e1557dc"
      	deploymentName : "helloworld-tlsr4sg5"
      	kubeconfig     : "<KUBECONFIG_CONTENTS>"
      	namespaceName  : "helloworld-pz4u5kyq"
      	serviceName    : "helloworld-l61b5dby"
      	servicePublicIP: ""
      	+ 6 created
      Duration: 3m51s
    5. After 3-5 minutes, your cluster will be ready, and the kubeconfig JSON you’ll use to connect to the cluster will be available as an output.

      As part of the update, you’ll see some new objects in the output: a Namespace in Kubernetes to deploy into, a Deployment resource for the NGINX app, and a LoadBalancer Service to publicly access NGINX.

      Pulumi understands which changes to a given cloud resource can be made in-place, and which require replacement, and computes the minimally disruptive change to achieve the desired state.

      Note: Pulumi auto-generates a suffix for all objects. See the Pulumi Programming Model for more info.

      clusterName    : "helloworld-2a6de9a"
      deploymentName : "helloworld-tlsr4sg5"
      kubeconfig     : "<KUBECONFIG_CONTENTS>"
      namespaceName  : "helloworld-pz4u5kyq"
      serviceName    : "helloworld-l61b5dby"
      servicePublicIP: ""

      If you visit the FQDN listed in servicePublicIP you should land on the NGINX welcome page. Note, that it may take a minute or so for the LoadBalancer to become active on GCP.

    6. Access the Kubernetes Cluster using kubectl

      To access your new Kubernetes cluster using kubectl, we need to setup the kubeconfig file and download kubectl. We can leverage the Pulumi stack output in the CLI, as Pulumi facilitates exporting these objects for us.

      $ pulumi stack output kubeconfig --show-secrets > kubeconfig
      $ export KUBECONFIG=$PWD/kubeconfig
      $ export KUBERNETES_VERSION=1.11.6 && sudo curl -s -o /usr/local/bin/kubectl https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/v${KUBERNETES_VERSION}/bin/linux/amd64/kubectl && sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/kubectl
      $ kubectl version
      $ kubectl cluster-info
      $ kubectl get nodes

      We can also use the stack output to query the cluster for our newly created Deployment:

      $ kubectl get deployment $(pulumi stack output deploymentName) --namespace=$(pulumi stack output namespaceName)
      $ kubectl get service $(pulumi stack output serviceName) --namespace=$(pulumi stack output namespaceName)

      We can also create another NGINX Deployment into the default namespace using kubectl natively:

      $ kubectl create deployment my-nginx --image=nginx
      $ kubectl get pods
      $ kubectl delete deployment my-nginx

      Of course, by doing so, resources are outside of Pulumi’s purview, but this simply demonstrates that all the kubectl commands you’re used to will work.

    7. Experimentation

      From here on, feel free to experiment. Simply making edits and running pulumi up afterwords, will incrementally update your stack.

      Running Off-the-Shelf Guestbook YAML

      For example, if you wish to pull existing Kubernetes YAML manifests into Pulumi to aid in your transition, append the following code block to the existing index.ts file and run pulumi up.

      This is an example of how to create the standard Kubernetes Guestbook manifests in Pulumi using the Guestbook YAML manifests. We take the additional steps of transforming its properties to use the same Namespace and metadata labels that the NGINX stack uses, and also make its frontend service use a LoadBalancer typed Service to expose it publicly.

      // Create resources for the Kubernetes Guestbook from its YAML manifests
      const guestbook = new k8s.yaml.ConfigFile("guestbook",
              file: "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/pulumi/pulumi-kubernetes/master/tests/sdk/nodejs/examples/yaml-guestbook/yaml/guestbook.yaml",
              transformations: [
                  (obj: any) => {
                      // Do transformations on the YAML to use the same namespace and
                      // labels as the NGINX stack above
                      if (obj.metadata.labels) {
                          obj.metadata.labels['appClass'] = namespaceName
                      } else {
                          obj.metadata.labels = appLabels
                      // Make the 'frontend' Service public by setting it to be of type
                      // LoadBalancer
                      if (obj.kind == "Service" && obj.metadata.name == "frontend") {
                          if (obj.spec) {
                              obj.spec.type = "LoadBalancer"
              providers: { "kubernetes": clusterProvider },
      // Export the Guestbook public LoadBalancer endpoint
      export const guestbookPublicIP =
          guestbook.getResourceProperty("v1/Service", "frontend", "status").apply(s => s.loadBalancer.ingress[0].ip);
    8. Once you’ve finished experimenting, tear down your stack’s resources by destroying and removing it:

      $ pulumi destroy --yes
      $ pulumi stack rm --yes
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    Google Cloud Classic v7.11.2 published on Wednesday, Feb 28, 2024 by Pulumi