1. Storing Database Credentials for ML Pipelines in Kubernetes Secrets


    Storing sensitive information such as database credentials securely is important for any application, including machine learning (ML) pipelines. In Kubernetes, you can use Secrets to hold sensitive information, such as passwords, OAuth tokens, and ssh keys. The Secret resource is specifically designed to store this kind of information, offering more protection than a typical ConfigMap.

    Here's how you can use Pulumi with the Kubernetes provider to create a Secret for storing database credentials for your ML pipeline:

    1. Define the Secret: A Secret in Kubernetes is a resource that you can create and use to store sensitive data, such as database credentials. You'll define keys and the encoded values they map to in the Secret's data field.

    2. Use the Secret: Your ML pipeline components like Pods can reference the Secret. Your application code can then read the environment variables and use them to connect to the database.

    3. Deploy with Pulumi: When you run pulumi up, Pulumi will ensure the Secret is created in your Kubernetes cluster.

    Let's create a Pulumi program to accomplish this:

    import base64 import pulumi import pulumi_kubernetes as k8s # Base64 encode your database credentials. # Important: These are dummy credentials, and you should replace them with your actual credentials. # Never hard-code credentials in your code. You should use a secure method to pass these values, # such as Pulumi's configuration system or a secure vault system. db_user = base64.b64encode('my_db_username'.encode('utf-8')).decode('utf-8') db_password = base64.b64encode('my_db_password'.encode('utf-8')).decode('utf-8') # Define a Kubernetes Secret to hold your database credentials. database_credentials = k8s.core.v1.Secret('db-credentials', metadata=k8s.meta.v1.ObjectMetaArgs( name='db-credentials' ), type='Opaque', # 'Opaque' means it can hold arbitrary data. data={ 'username': db_user, 'password': db_password } ) # Export the name of the Secret. You can use this name to reference the Secret in other resources. pulumi.export('secret_name', database_credentials.metadata['name'])

    In the above program:

    • We import the necessary Pulumi packages for Python.
    • We encode the database credentials using Base64. This step is mandatory as the data in Kubernetes Secrets must be base64-encoded strings. Note: Do not use hardcoded credentials as shown here; instead, retrieve them from a secure location.
    • We create a Secret resource with the encoded credentials.
    • Finally, we export the name of the Secret so that you can refer to it in your application code or in other parts of your Pulumi program.

    Important security considerations:

    • Never hard-code credentials. Here, they are provided only for demonstration purposes.
    • It is recommended to manage sensitive values with a secrets manager or using Pulumi's secret handling capabilities, where they are encrypted in transit and at rest.
    • Make sure that Access Control Policies are set up properly in your Kubernetes cluster to restrict who can read Secrets.

    To run this Pulumi program, save it as a .py file and execute it with the Pulumi CLI after installing Pulumi and setting up the Kubernetes provider. This program assumes you have already configured your Kubernetes cluster and have the necessary context active.

    Please remember to consult the Kubernetes Secret documentation to get more details on how to effectively use Secrets in your cluster.