1. AI Application Monitoring and Observability with Kubernetes Logstash


    Application monitoring and observability are critical components of the application lifecycle, especially when dealing with complex architectures like microservices that run on Kubernetes. Logstash is an open-source tool that can collect, process, and forward events and log messages. It's part of the Elastic Stack (formerly known as ELK Stack), mainly used to aggregate and process data and send it to a stash like Elasticsearch.

    In the context of Kubernetes, Logstash can be deployed as a pod within your Kubernetes cluster, where it can receive logs from different Kubernetes components and other applications running on the cluster, process these logs, and then output them to Elasticsearch or other destinations.

    Here's how you could set up a Kubernetes cluster and deploy Logstash as a monitoring solution within that cluster using Pulumi.

    First, we'll create a Kubernetes cluster. This example uses azure-native to provision an AKS (Azure Kubernetes Service) cluster. Then, we'll define a Kubernetes Deployment and Service for Logstash.

    Creating an AKS cluster with Pulumi

    We begin by creating an AKS cluster using Azure's native providers. Below is a Pulumi program that creates a cluster:

    import pulumi import pulumi_azure_native as azure_native from pulumi_azure_native import resources, containerservice # Create a resource group for the cluster resource_group = resources.ResourceGroup('rg') # Now, create the AKS cluster in the resource group aks_cluster = containerservice.ManagedCluster( 'aksCluster', resource_group_name=resource_group.name, agent_pool_profiles=[{ 'count': 1, # Number of nodes in the node pool 'vm_size': 'Standard_DS2_v2', # Size of the nodes 'name': 'agentpool', # Name of the node pool }], dns_prefix='aksk8sdemo', # DNS prefix for the cluster enable_rbac=True, # Enable Kubernetes RBAC kubernetes_version='1.19.7', # Specify the version of Kubernetes linux_profile={ 'admin_username': 'aksuser', # Username for the Linux VMs 'ssh': { 'publicKeys': [{ 'keyData': 'ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC...' # Insert your SSH public key }] } }, service_principal_profile={ 'client_id': 'your-service-principal-client-id', # Service Principal ClientID 'secret': 'your-service-principal-client-secret', # Service Principal Secret } ) pulumi.export('kubeconfig', aks_cluster.kube_config_raw)

    Replace the dummy values for the SSH key, client ID, and secret with your actual values.

    Deploying Logstash to AKS with Pulumi

    After the AKS cluster is provisioned, we can deploy Logstash to the cluster. This requires setting up a Kubernetes Deployment.

    Below is an example of how to define a Logstash deployment:

    import pulumi_kubernetes as k8s # Create Logstash deployment logstash_app_labels = {'app': 'logstash'} logstash_deployment = k8s.apps.v1.Deployment( 'logstash-deployment', spec=k8s.apps.v1.DeploymentSpecArgs( selector=k8s.meta.v1.LabelSelectorArgs(match_labels=logstash_app_labels), replicas=1, # The number of Logstash instances to run template=k8s.core.v1.PodTemplateSpecArgs( metadata=k8s.meta.v1.ObjectMetaArgs(labels=logstash_app_labels), spec=k8s.core.v1.PodSpecArgs( containers=[ k8s.core.v1.ContainerArgs( name='logstash', image='logstash:7.9.3', # Use the appropriate Logstash image args=['-f', '/etc/logstash/conf.d/'], # Path to your Logstash configuration files ports=[k8s.core.v1.ContainerPortArgs(container_port=5044)] ), ], ), ), ) ) # Expose Logstash as a service logstash_service = k8s.core.v1.Service( 'logstash-service', metadata=k8s.meta.v1.ObjectMetaArgs( labels=logstash_app_labels, ), spec=k8s.core.v1.ServiceSpecArgs( type='ClusterIP', ports=[k8s.core.v1.ServicePortArgs(port=5044)], selector=logstash_app_labels, ) )

    In the example above, we defined a Deployment with a single replica. Also, we are specifying that Logstash should be run with an image we have chosen, exposing it on port 5044, and matching our defined labels.

    You would deploy Logstash configurations as ConfigMaps or Secrets to be consumed by Logstash Pods, so they can process logs correctly.

    This is a basic example, and in a real-world scenario, you would also need to handle persistent storage, more complex configuration, security context settings, and more.

    For detailed information about the Pulumi Kubernetes provider, you can view the Pulumi Kubernetes provider documentation.

    Note: For Elasticsearch and Kibana (other components of the ELK Stack), you would follow similar steps to create Deployments and Services for each of them. Be sure to handle interconnectivity, as Logstash will need to send data to an Elasticsearch service, and Kibana will need to connect to Elasticsearch as well.