1. Predictive Scaling of AI Infrastructure Based on CloudWatch Metrics


    Predictive scaling is a feature that uses machine learning to analyze historical load metrics and predict future demand. In the context of AWS, predictive scaling can leverage CloudWatch metrics to automatically adjust the amount of computational resources in response to the anticipated load, ensuring that your AI infrastructure can handle the workload while optimizing costs.

    To achieve predictive scaling with Pulumi and AWS, we need to create the following resources:

    1. AWS Auto Scaling Group: This will manage the collection of EC2 instances that power your AI infrastructure.
    2. AWS CloudWatch Metrics and Alarms: These will be used to monitor the performance and health of EC2 instances in the Auto Scaling Group.
    3. AWS Auto Scaling Policy: This defines scaling actions to take (e.g., scale out or scale in) in response to the CloudWatch Alarms.

    Below is a Pulumi program written in Python that sets up an Auto Scaling Group, attaches CloudWatch Alarms to it, and defines policies for predictive scaling. The details of each step are explained through comments within the program, so you'll understand what each part of the code is doing.

    import pulumi import pulumi_aws as aws # Step 1: Setup an Auto Scaling Group with initial desired capacity, min size, max size, etc. auto_scaling_group = aws.autoscaling.Group("ai-infra-asg", # Assume that we already have a launch configuration defined for our EC2 instances launch_configuration="ai-infra-launch-config", # Setting minimum and maximum sizes for the Auto Scaling Group min_size=1, max_size=10, # The desired number of instances to start with desired_capacity=2, # The VPC zone identifiers for where to launch the EC2 instances vpc_zone_identifiers=["subnet-abcdefgh", "subnet-ijklmnop"], # Scaling policies will be attached to this Auto Scaling Group tags={ "Name": "ai-infra", } ) # Step 2: Define CloudWatch Metrics and Alarms to monitor the Auto Scaling Group # Here we assume that we are tracking a custom metric that is pertinent to our AI workload, # such as GPU utilization. You can adjust the metric and thresholds based on your specific requirements. gpu_utilization_alarm = aws.cloudwatch.MetricAlarm("gpu-utilization-alarm", # The name of the custom metric metric_name="GPUUtilization", namespace="AI/Infrastructure", statistic="Average", # We define the threshold and the period over which it is evaluated threshold=75, evaluation_periods=2, period=300, comparison_operator="GreaterThanOrEqualToThreshold", # Link to our Auto Scaling Group dimensions={"AutoScalingGroupName": auto_scaling_group.name}, # Actions like sending an SNS message or triggering scaling policies can be added here alarm_actions=["arn:aws:sns:us-west-2:123456789012:gpu-high-utilization"], tags={ "Name": "GPU Utilization Alarm", } ) # Step 3: Attach scaling policies to the Auto Scaling Group for predictive scaling scale_out_policy = aws.autoscaling.Policy("scale-out", # Type of scaling policy, in this case, predictive scaling adjustment_type="ChangeInCapacity", # Points to the Auto Scaling Group we created above autoscaling_group_name=auto_scaling_group.name, # The magnitude of the change to the desired capacity of the Auto Scaling Group scaling_adjustment=2, cooldown=300 ) scale_in_policy = aws.autoscaling.Policy("scale-in", adjustment_type="ChangeInCapacity", autoscaling_group_name=auto_scaling_group.name, scaling_adjustment=-2, cooldown=300 ) # Output the IDs so we can easily identify the created resources pulumi.export("auto_scaling_group_name", auto_scaling_group.name) pulumi.export("gpu_utilization_alarm_name", gpu_utilization_alarm.name) pulumi.export("scale_out_policy_name", scale_out_policy.name) pulumi.export("scale_in_policy_name", scale_in_policy.name)

    Here's a breakdown of the program:

    • We start by creating an AWS Auto Scaling Group. The group will manage EC2 instances that comprise our AI infrastructure.
    • We then set up a CloudWatch Metric Alarm. In our scenario, we are monitoring GPU Utilization as a critical metric, but you can substitute this with any metric that best represents the workload of your AI infrastructure.
    • We also create Scaling Policies. These are the actions taken when an alarm is triggered. We have scale-out policies to increase capacity when demand is high, and scale-in policies to decrease capacity when demand is low.

    Keep in mind that for predictive scaling specifically, AWS Auto Scaling can also manage this directly under its own service by setting up scaling plans which include predictive scaling as a feature. However, crafting a predictive model is beyond the scope of infrastructure as code and requires the configuration of AWS Auto Scaling Plans with proper data to train the predictive model.

    For more details on each AWS service used and their options, you can follow these links:

    Ensure you have the necessary AWS permissions and that your Pulumi stack is configured with the appropriate AWS region and credentials before running this program.