1. High-Throughput Inference with Kubernetes Batch Jobs


    When dealing with high-throughput inference, Kubernetes can be an excellent tool due to its ability to orchestrate containerized applications efficiently. A common pattern is to use Kubernetes Jobs for batch processing, which allows for processing large volumes of data by running jobs to completion.

    In the context of Kubernetes, a Job creates one or more Pods and ensures that a specified number of them successfully terminate. When the specified number of completions is successfully reached, the Job is complete. This makes Jobs a great candidate for performing batch inference tasks.

    Below is a Pulumi program in Python that creates a Kubernetes Job designed to handle high-throughput inference tasks. The program assumes that you have a pre-built container image that contains your inference code and any dependencies it may have. This container will be used by each Pod in the Job to process the data.

    In this example, I will be using the kubernetes.batch.v1.Job resource to create the Job.

    import pulumi import pulumi_kubernetes as k8s # Define the Job's metadata. # Here, we assign a name to our Job and attach labels for identifying the Job's resources more easily. job_metadata = k8s.meta.v1.ObjectMetaArgs( name="high-throughput-inference-job", labels={"type": "inference"} ) # Define the Job's container spec. # This describes the container that will run the inference task. # You might need to adjust this spec to fit the specifics of your task, # such as command, arguments, environment variables, etc. job_container = k8s.core.v1.ContainerArgs( name="inference-container", image="your_repo/your_inference_image:latest", # Define the command and arguments that your container should execute. # It should be pointing to the script or executable that starts the inference process. command=["/bin/inference"], args=["--data", "/path/to/data", "--output", "/path/to/result"] # You can define other properties such as env, resources, volume mounts, etc. ) # Define the Job's spec. # This includes the template of the pod that runs the job as well as job-specific settings. job_spec = k8s.batch.v1.JobSpecArgs( # Template is a Pod template. Here we specify the container and its specs. template=k8s.core.v1.PodTemplateSpecArgs( spec=k8s.core.v1.PodSpecArgs( containers=[job_container], restart_policy="Never" # Ensure the Pods in the Job are not restarted once they complete or fail. ) ), # Define how many times the job should be completed. completions=5, # Define how many Pods should run in parallel. parallelism=5, # Define backoff strategy (may be necessary if you expect retries to happen) backoff_limit=3, ) # Create the Job resource. # The Job will start Pods based on the provided template, and it will manage their lifecycle according to the defined spec. job = k8s.batch.v1.Job( "inference-job", metadata=job_metadata, spec=job_spec ) # Export the name of the Job. # This output will display the name of the Job once you deploy your stack with `pulumi up`. pulumi.export("job_name", job.metadata.apply(lambda metadata: metadata.name))

    This program initializes a Kubernetes Job with a specified container image and task definitions. The completions property defines that the Job will be considered complete once five inference tasks have been successfully completed. The parallelism property indicates that up to five pods performing the task can run concurrently.

    When this script is run with Pulumi, it will provision the described Kubernetes Job in the cluster that Pulumi is configured to interact with. You would need to ensure your Kubernetes context is correctly set to interact with the cluster you intend to deploy to. The container image used should be an accessible image containing the inference code that's tailored for your use case.

    In a real-world implementation, you would also need a data source for your inference jobs and a location to write the output. The specifics of these elements would depend on your particular application and might involve configuring Persistent Volumes, Claims, and more complex job settings.