1. Kubernetes Network Security with Cilium Clusterwide Policies


    When deploying apps on Kubernetes, network security is essential to ensure your cluster and the applications running on it are protected against unauthorized access and other cyber threats. Kubernetes provides Network Policies as a native way to control the traffic flow at the IP address or port level. However, Cilium extends Kubernetes networking to provide a highly scalable and secure network that enforces HTTP/API/L7 policies transparently. Cilium works at the level of the Linux kernel BPF (Berkeley Packet Filter) to enforce security policies.

    For Kubernetes network security, Cilium provides a more detailed level of control than standard Kubernetes Network Policies, including visibility into Layer 7 traffic (e.g., HTTP) and the ability to enforce security policies on this type of traffic. This enables you to define more granular security policies based on individual HTTP endpoints, Kubernetes labels, and more.

    To implement cluster-wide network security with Cilium, you would generally have to follow these steps:

    1. Install Cilium CNI Plugin: Configure your Kubernetes cluster to use Cilium as the Container Network Interface (CNI) plugin.
    2. Define Cilium Network Policies (CNP): Define how groups of pods are allowed to communicate with each other and other network endpoints.
    3. Apply Cilium Clusterwide Network Policies (CCNP): Similar to CNP, but these policies are enforced on the entire Kubernetes cluster rather than on a per-namespace basis.

    Here's a basic Pulumi program in Python that demonstrates how you can define a Cilium Clusterwide Network Policy using Pulumi's Kubernetes SDK. We're assuming that Cilium is already installed and configured as the CNI plugin for your Kubernetes cluster.

    import pulumi import pulumi_kubernetes as k8s # Define a Cilium Clusterwide Network Policy (CCNP) # Cilium adds custom resource definitions (CRDs) for network policies, which you can # create using Pulumi's Kubernetes provider. cilium_ccnp = k8s.apiextensions.CustomResource( "cilium-clusterwide-network-policy", api_version="cilium.io/v2", kind="CiliumClusterwideNetworkPolicy", metadata={ "name": "example-clusterwide-policy" }, spec={ # Define the endpoint selectors; this can select on any kubernetes pod labels. "endpointSelector": { "matchLabels": { "role": "frontend" } }, # Define the ingress rules to allow/deny traffic. "ingress": [{ "fromEndpoints": [{ "matchLabels": { "role": "backend" } }] }], # Define the egress rules to allow/deny traffic. "egress": [{ "toEndpoints": [{ "matchLabels": { "role": "database" } }] }] } ) # Export the name of the network policy pulumi.export('network_policy_name', cilium_ccnp.metadata['name'])

    In this program,

    • We import the pulumi and pulumi_kubernetes packages.
    • We define a custom resource of kind CiliumClusterwideNetworkPolicy using Cilium's custom resource definition.
    • The endpointSelector specifies the pods to which the policy will be applied, using Kubernetes labels. Here, it applies to all pods with the label role: frontend.
    • The ingress section specifies how packets received by the endpoint should be treated (here, we allow traffic from any endpoint with the label role: backend).
    • The egress section specifies which endpoints the selected endpoints are allowed to send packets to (here, it allows sending to endpoints with the label role: database).

    To run this code, you'll need to have Pulumi installed and configured to communicate with your Kubernetes cluster. Keep in mind that before applying such policies, Cilium must be installed as the CNI plugin in the cluster, and you should carefully design your network policies to fit your security requirements and application architecture.

    Remember, network policies are a critical aspect of Kubernetes security and must be used with caution. Each change could potentially disrupt application communication, so it's important to apply them in a controlled manner, observing the behavior after deployment.