1. Restricting Database Connections by Geographic Location


    To restrict database connections based on geographic location, you might want to set up a network configuration that filters traffic based on the originating IP addresses' geographical information. We will use AWS as the cloud provider in this context, as the Pulumi Registry Results provide an AWS-related resource for this task.

    AWS Route 53 service has a feature called geolocation routing, which allows you to route traffic based on the location of your users. However, for restricting database connections, we typically use security groups, network access control lists (NACLs), or third-party services like AWS WAF (Web Application Firewall) that support geolocation-based rules. Unfortunately, AWS does not provide a direct geolocation-based connection restriction for databases at the networking level within AWS services like RDS or DynamoDB.

    Instead, you would have to implement a custom solution using AWS Lambda or EC2 instances to perform IP geolocation checks before allowing connections to your database. AWS WAF can be used in front of an API Gateway or a load balancer, which then directs traffic to your database, enforcing geolocation-based rules you define.

    Below is a Python Pulumi program that sets up an infrastructure using AWS WAF to control access to a hypothetical database endpoint exposed via API Gateway based on the requester's geolocation. This example assumes that the database API is already set up and uses AWS WAF to restrict access:

    import pulumi import pulumi_aws as aws # Your database's API Gateway endpoint or load balancer ARN goes here. # This should be the ARN for the resource that serves as the entry point to your database. database_api_arn = 'arn:aws:apigateway:region:account-id:/restapis/api-id/stages/stage-name' # Create an IPSet that represents a list of allowed IP address ranges (CIDRs) by country. # This list needs to be populated with the CIDR blocks that you want to whitelist. # For example, '' might represent an allowed IP range. # Use a GeoIP service or database to convert country codes to CIDR blocks. ip_set = aws.waf.IpSet("whitelistIpSet", ip_set_descriptors=[ aws.waf.IpSetIpSetDescriptorArgs( type="IPV4", value="", ), ] ) # Create a Web ACL that uses the IPSet to allow requests. # You can add additional rules or combine this with other conditions as needed. web_acl = aws.waf.WebAcl("whitelistWebAcl", default_action=aws.waf.WebAclDefaultActionArgs( type="BLOCK", ), rules=[ aws.waf.WebAclRuleArgs( action=aws.waf.WebAclRuleActionArgs( type="ALLOW", ), priority=1, rule_id=ip_set.id, type="REGULAR", ), ], metrics_name="whitelistWebAcl", name="whitelistWebAcl", ) # Associate the Web ACL with the database's API Gateway or a load balancer # This will apply the geolocation restrictions defined in the Web ACL # to traffic reaching the database endpoint. assoc = aws.waf.WebAclAssociation("webAclAssociation", resource_arn=database_api_arn, web_acl_id=web_acl.id, ) # Export the ID of the Web ACL to access it later if needed pulumi.export('web_acl_id', web_acl.id)

    In the program above, we create an IP set for AWS WAF that includes ranges of IP addresses you've identified as allowed based on geographic location. Then, we create a Web ACL that uses this IP set to allow traffic, with the default action being to block any other traffic. Lastly, the Web ACL is associated with the ARN of an API Gateway stage, which could be the entry point for database connection requests.

    Please note that managing geolocation data and effectively restricting access based on it can be complex. IP geolocation is not always accurate, and IP addresses can be spoofed. This method should be part of a broader security strategy.

    Remember that AWS service costs may be incurred based on the number of ACLs, rules, and other resources you create. Always check the AWS pricing page for the most up-to-date pricing information.