1. SSH Key Management for Distributed Training Clusters


    Managing SSH keys in distributed training clusters is essential for enabling secure access to each node in the cluster for deployment, management, and orchestration tasks. In the context of using Pulumi, you would typically handle SSH key management by leveraging the cloud provider's capabilities for key pair creation and association with compute instances.

    Here's a program written in Python using Pulumi that demonstrates how to manage SSH keys across a cluster of compute instances. In this example, I'll use AWS as the cloud provider and create an SSH key pair which will be associated with each EC2 instance in the cluster. AWS allows you to specify an SSH key name when creating an EC2 instance, which provides the SSH public key for connecting securely.

    Before we start with the code, let's discuss the steps involved:

    1. Create an SSH Key Pair: Use the aws.ec2.KeyPair resource to create a new SSH key pair. The public key will be generated by AWS, and you will be responsible for securely storing the private key.

    2. Provision EC2 Instances: Use aws.ec2.Instance resources in a loop to create the desired number of instances for your training cluster and associate the SSH key with each instance.

    3. Export Instance Access Details: To access instances, you will need their IP addresses and the SSH private key (stored securely).

    Now, let's write the Pulumi program to accomplish this:

    import pulumi import pulumi_aws as aws # Create an SSH key pair to be used for the EC2 instances ssh_key = aws.ec2.KeyPair("ssh-key", public_key="ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQCl... user@example.com") # Number of EC2 instances for the distributed training cluster cluster_size = 3 # List to hold references to the instances created instances = [] # Create several EC2 instances to form a cluster for i in range(cluster_size): instance = aws.ec2.Instance(f"cluster-instance-{i}", instance_type="t2.micro", # Specify the type of instance vpc_security_group_ids=["sg-xxxxxxxxxxxx"], # Specify the security group ami="ami-0c55b159cbfafe1f0", # Specify the AMI (for example, an Ubuntu server) key_name=ssh_key.key_name, # Associate the SSH key created earlier with the instance ) instances.append(instance) # Export the public IPs of the instances and the name of the SSH key # Remember to handle the SSH private key securely pulumi.export("instance-ips", [instance.public_ip for instance in instances]) pulumi.export("ssh-key-name", ssh_key.key_name)

    This code snippet initializes an SSH key and spawns a small cluster of EC2 instances, associating the public part of the key with each instance. Keep in mind that this code assumes you already have a suitable security group and AMI ID for your instances; you should replace the placeholders with actual values from your setup.

    After running this program with Pulumi CLI (pulumi up), you will receive outputs with the public IPs of the instances and the name of the SSH key. You can then SSH into each instance using the corresponding IP address and the private key that matches the public key you provided. Always remember that the private key must be kept secure and should never be exposed or committed to version control.