1. SignalFx to Visualize Large Language Model Training Metrics


    SignalFx, now known as Splunk Infrastructure Monitoring after their acquisition by Splunk, is a real-time cloud monitoring platform for infrastructure, microservices, and applications. To visualize the training metrics of large language models, you would typically send custom metrics from the environment where the training is taking place to SignalFx. Pulumi itself doesn't interact with SignalFx directly for this purpose, but you can use Pulumi to set up your infrastructure in such a way that it supports the integration with SignalFx.

    The Pulumi program I'll provide below will not directly integrate with SignalFx, since the Pulumi Registry results did not include a direct resource for SignalFx. However, it will outline how you can set up a cloud environment—for example, on AWS—that could host a training job for a machine learning model. After setting up the infrastructure, you would use the SignalFx API or an integration library for sending custom metrics to your SignalFx dashboard.

    The core resources used here will be:

    • AWS EC2 Instance: A virtual server in AWS's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) for running the training job.
    • CloudWatch Metrics: AWS CloudWatch to monitor the resource usage, although for custom application-specific metrics SignalFx would be used instead.

    In the scope of Pulumi, we will provision an EC2 instance that could be used for running machine learning training jobs. To send data to SignalFx, you will generally run a SignalFx agent or instrument your application code to use SignalFx libraries to send custom metrics.

    Let's draft the Pulumi code to set up an AWS EC2 instance and a basic metric monitoring setup using AWS CloudWatch:

    import pulumi import pulumi_aws as aws # Assume the necessary SignalFx API keys or integration tokens are available # outside of Pulumi for security, and that SignalFx has been set up separately. # Create an AWS EC2 instance to run the large language model training job. training_instance = aws.ec2.Instance("training-instance", instance_type="c5.large", # This is a compute-optimized instance suitable for compute-heavy tasks such as ML training. ami="", # You should specify the correct Amazon Machine Image (AMI) ID here. tags={ "Name": "language-model-training" } ) # Create a CloudWatch dashboard for basic monitoring. # This does not integrate with SignalFx, but serves as an example of cloud monitoring. # The configuration can be modified to suit the metrics that are relevant for the training job. dashboard_body = """ { "widgets": [ { "type": "metric", "x": 0, "y": 0, "width": 12, "height": 6, "properties": { "metrics": [ [ "AWS/EC2", "CPUUtilization", "InstanceId", "{instance_id}" ] ], "period": 300, "stat": "Average", "region": "us-west-2", "title": "EC2 Instance CPU Utilization" } } ] } """.replace("{instance_id}", training_instance.id) dashboard = aws.cloudwatch.Dashboard("training-monitoring-dashboard", dashboard_name="language-model-training", dashboard_body=dashboard_body ) # Expose the instance's ID and public IP to retrieve them easily # This can be used to SSH into the instance, for example pulumi.export("instance_id", training_instance.id) pulumi.export("public_ip", training_instance.public_ip)

    Here's what the elements of the code do:

    1. An EC2 instance is provisioned with c5.large, which is suitable for compute-intensive operations such as machine learning model training.
    2. An AMI is specified, which will determine the OS and pre-installed packages on the EC2 instance. This must be chosen based on the needs of your training job.
    3. CloudWatch metrics for basic monitoring are set up. This would ideally be replaced or complemented by SignalFx monitoring, depending on your needs.
    4. A CloudWatch dashboard is created for visualizing the CPU utilization of the EC2 instance.
    5. The instance id and public IP are exported. These can be used to access the instance for management tasks such as starting the model training or setting up the monitoring agent.

    To complete the integration with SignalFx, you would typically provision an IAM role with permissions to send metrics to SignalFx, install the SignalFx agent on your EC2 instance or manually send data to SignalFx using their SDK. Unfortunately, Pulumi does not natively manage third-party services like SignalFx. However, you can still automate part of this process with custom Pulumi components that interact with the SignalFx API, as long as you handle the authentication and authorization outside of Pulumi.