Every Pulumi program is deployed to a stack. A stack is an isolated, independently configurable instance of a Pulumi program. Stacks are commonly used to denote different phases of development (such as development, staging, and production) or feature branches (such as feature-x-dev).

A project can have as many stacks as you need. By default, Pulumi creates a stack for you when you start a new project using the pulumi new command.

Create a stack

To create a new stack, use pulumi stack init stackName. This creates an empty stack stackName and sets it as the active stack. The project that the stack is associated with is determined by finding the nearest Pulumi.yaml file.

The stack name must be unique within a project. Stack names may only contain alphanumeric characters, hyphens, underscores, or periods.

$ pulumi stack init staging

If you are using Pulumi in your organization, by default the stack will be created in your user account. To target the organization, name the stack using orgName/stackName:

$ pulumi stack init broomllc/staging

Fully qualified stack names also include the project name, in the form orgName/projectName/stackName, and this fully-qualified format is required in some contexts. In most contexts, the shorthands orgName/stackName or stackName are valid and use the default organization and the current project context.

Listing stacks

To see the list of stacks associated with the current project (the nearest Pulumi.yaml file), use pulumi stack ls.

$ pulumi stack ls
NAME                                      LAST UPDATE              RESOURCE COUNT
jane-dev                                  4 hours ago              97
staging*                                  n/a                      n/a
test                                      2 weeks ago              121

Select a stack

The top-level pulumi operations config, preview, update and destroy operate on the active stack. To change the active stack, run pulumi stack select.

$ pulumi stack select jane-dev

$ pulumi stack ls
NAME                                      LAST UPDATE              RESOURCE COUNT
jane-dev*                                 4 hours ago              97
staging                                   n/a                      n/a
test                                      2 weeks ago              121

To select a stack that is part of an organization, use the fully-qualified stack name, either orgName/stackName or orgName/projectName/stackName:

$ pulumi stack select mycompany/prod

$ pulumi stack ls
NAME                                      LAST UPDATE              RESOURCE COUNT
mycompany/prod*                            4 hours ago              97
mycompany/staging                          4 hours ago              97
dev                                       n/a                      n/a

Generate an update plan

To preview an update of the currently selected stack and save that plan run pulumi preview --save-plan=plan.json. The operation uses the latest configuration values for the active stack.

Update a stack

To update the currently selected stack, run pulumi up. If you saved a plan from a preview you can pass that in to constrain the update to only doing what was planned with pulumi up --plan=plan.json. The operation uses the latest configuration values for the active stack.

View stack resources

To view details of the currently selected stack, run pulumi stack with no arguments. This displays the metadata, resources and output properties associated with the stack.

$ pulumi stack
Current stack is jane-dev:
    Last updated 1 week ago (2018-03-02 10:26:09.850357 -0800 PST)
    Pulumi version v0.11.0
    Plugin nodejs [language] version 0.11.0
    Plugin aws [resource] version 0.11.0

Current stack resources (3):
    TYPE                                             NAME
    pulumi:pulumi:Stack                              webserver-jane-dev
    aws:ec2/securityGroup:SecurityGroup              web-secgrp
    aws:ec2/instance:Instance                        web-server-www

Current stack outputs (2):
    OUTPUT                                           VALUE

Use `pulumi stack select` to change stack; `pulumi stack ls` lists known ones

Stack tags

Stacks have associated metadata in the form of tags, with each tag consisting of a name and value. A set of built-in tags are automatically assigned and updated each time a stack is updated (such as pulumi:project, pulumi:runtime, pulumi:description, gitHub:owner, gitHub:repo, vcs:owner, vcs:repo, and vcs:kind). To view a stack’s tags, run pulumi stack tag ls.

Custom tags can be assigned to a stack by running pulumi stack tag set <name> <value> and can be used to customize the grouping of stacks in the Pulumi Service. For example, if you have many projects with separate stacks for production, staging, and testing environments, it may be useful to group stacks by environment instead of by project. To do this, you could assign a custom tag named environment to each stack. For example, running pulumi stack tag set environment production assigns a custom environment tag with a value of production to the active stack. Once you’ve assigned an environment tag to each stack, you’ll be able to group by Tag: environment in the Pulumi Service.

As a best practice, custom tags should not be prefixed with pulumi:, gitHub:, or vcs: to avoid conflicting with built-in tags that are assigned and updated with fresh values each time a stack is updated.

Tags can be deleted by running pulumi stack tag rm <name>.

Stack Outputs

A stack can export values as stack outputs. These outputs are shown during an update, can be easily retrieved with the Pulumi CLI, and are displayed in the Pulumi Service. They can be used for important values like resource IDs, computed IP addresses, and DNS names.

To export values from a stack, use the following definition in the top-level of the entrypoint for your project:

exports.url = resource.url;
export let url = resource.url;
pulumi.export("url", resource.url)
ctx.Export("url", resource.Url)
public class MyStack : Stack
    public MyStack()
        this.Url = resource.Url;

    // 'url' is the output name. By default, it would take the property name 'Url'.
    [Output("url")] Output<string> Url { get; set; }
public class App {
    public static void main(String[] args) {;

    public static void stack(Context ctx) {
        ctx.export("url", resource.url());
  url: ${resource.url}

From the CLI, you can then use pulumi stack output url to get the value and incorporate into other scripts or tools.

The value of a stack export can be a regular value, an Output, or a Promise (effectively, the same as an Input). The actual values are resolved after pulumi up completes.

Stack exports are effectively JSON serialized, though quotes are removed when exporting strings.

For example, the following statements:

exports.x = "hello"
exports.o = {num: 42}
export let x = "hello";
export let o = {num: 42};
pulumi.export("x", "hello")
pulumi.export("o", {'num': 42})
ctx.Export("x", pulumi.String("hello"))
ctx.Export("o", pulumi.Map(map[string]pulumi.Input{
    "num": pulumi.Int(42),
class MyStack : Stack
    [Output] public Output<string> x { get; set; }
    [Output] public Output<ImmutableDictionary<string, int>> o { get; set; }

    public MyStack()
        this.x = Output.Create("hello");
        this.o = Output.Create(
            new Dictionary<string, int> { { "num", 42 } }
public static void stack(Context ctx) {
    ctx.export("x", Output.of("hello"));
    ctx.export("o", Output.of(Map.of(
            "num", "42"
  x: hello
    num: 42

produce the following stack outputs:

$ pulumi stack output x
$ pulumi stack output o
{"num": 42}

The full set of outputs can be rendered as JSON by using pulumi stack output --json:

$ pulumi stack output --json
  "x": "hello",
  "o": {
      "num": 42

Stack outputs respect secret annotations and are encrypted appropriately. If a stack contains any secret values, their plaintext values will not be shown by default. Instead, they will be displayed as secret in the CLI. Pass --show-secrets to pulumi stack output to see the plaintext value.

Getting the Current Stack Programmatically

The getStack getStack get_stack context.Stack Deployment.StackName function gives you the currently deploying stack, which can be useful in naming, tagging, or accessing resources.

let stack = pulumi.getStack();
let stack = pulumi.getStack();
stack = pulumi.get_stack()
stack := ctx.Stack()
var stack = Deployment.Instance.StackName;
var stack = ctx.stackName();
  stack: ${pulumi.stack}

Stack References

Stack references allow you to access the outputs of one stack from another stack. Inter-Stack Dependencies allow one stack to reference the outputs of another stack.

To reference values from another stack, create an instance of the StackReference type using the fully qualified name of the stack as an input, and then read exported stack outputs by their name:

const pulumi = require("@pulumi/pulumi");
const other = new pulumi.StackReference("acmecorp/infra/other");
const otherOutput = other.getOutput("x");
import * as pulumi from "@pulumi/pulumi";
const other = new pulumi.StackReference("acmecorp/infra/other");
const otherOutput = other.getOutput("x");
from pulumi import StackReference

other = StackReference(f"acmecorp/infra/other")
other_output = other.get_output("x");
other, err := pulumi.NewStackReference(ctx, "acmecorp/infra/other", nil)
if err != nil {
    return err
otherOutput := other.GetOutput(pulumi.String("x"))
var other = new StackReference("acmecorp/infra/other");
var otherOutput = other.GetOutput("x");
var other = new StackReference("acmecorp/infra/other");
var otherOutput = other.getOutput(Output.of("x"));
    type: pulumi:pulumi:StackReference
      name: acmecorp/infra/other

  stack_output: ${my-stack-reference.outputs["x"]}

Stack names must be fully qualified, including the organization, project, and stack name components, in the format <organization>/<project>/<stack>. For individual accounts, use your account name for the organization component.

To expand on this further, imagine you need to define a cluster’s infrastructure in one project and consume it from another. Perhaps one project, infra, defines a Kubernetes cluster and another, services, deploys services into it. Let’s further imagine you are doing this across three distinct environments: production, staging, and testing. In that case, you will have six distinct stacks that pair up in the following ways:

  • mycompany/infra/production provides the cluster used by mycompany/services/production
  • mycompany/infra/staging provides the cluster used by mycompany/services/staging
  • mycompany/infra/testing provides the cluster used by mycompany/services/testing

The way Pulumi programs communicate information for external consumption is by using stack exports. For example, your infrastructure stack might export the Kubernetes configuration information needed to deploy into a cluster:

exports.kubeConfig = ... a cluster's output property ...;
export const kubeConfig = ... a cluster's output property ...;
pulumi.export("kubeConfig", ... a cluster's output property ...)
ctx.Export("kubeConfig", /*...a cluster's output property...*/)
class ClusterStack : Stack
    [Output] public Output<string> KubeConfig { get; set; }

    public ClusterStack()
        // ... a cluster is created ...

        this.KubeConfig = ... a cluster's output property ...
ctx.export("kubeConfig", /*...a cluster's output property...*/);
  kubeConfig: ... # a cluster's output property

The challenge in this scenario is that the services project needs to ingest this output during deployment so that it can connect to the Kubernetes cluster provisioned in its respective environment.

The Pulumi programming model offers a way to do this with its StackReference resource type. For example:

const k8s = require("@pulumi/kubernetes");
const pulumi = require("@pulumi/pulumi");
const env = pulumi.getStack();
const infra = new pulumi.StackReference(`mycompany/infra/${env}`);
const provider = new k8s.Provider("k8s", { kubeconfig: infra.getOutput("kubeConfig") });
const service = new k8s.core.v1.Service(..., { provider: provider });
import * as k8s from "@pulumi/kubernetes";
import * as pulumi from "@pulumi/pulumi";
const env = pulumi.getStack();
const infra = new pulumi.StackReference(`mycompany/infra/${env}`);
const provider = new k8s.Provider("k8s", { kubeconfig: infra.getOutput("kubeConfig") });
const service = new k8s.core.v1.Service(..., { provider: provider });
from pulumi import get_stack, ResourceOptions, StackReference
from pulumi_kubernetes import Provider, core

env = get_stack()
infra = StackReference(f"mycompany/infra/{env}")
provider = Provider("k8s", kubeconfig=infra.get_output("kubeConfig"))
service = core.v1.Service(..., ResourceOptions(provider=provider))
import (


func main() {
  pulumi.Run(func(ctx *pulumi.Context) error {
    slug := fmt.Sprintf("mycompany/infra/%v", ctx.Stack())
    stackRef, err := pulumi.NewStackReference(ctx, slug, nil)

    kubeConfig := stackRef.GetOutput(pulumi.String("kubeConfig"))
    // ...
    return nil
using Pulumi;
using Pulumi.Kubernetes.Core.V1;

class AppStack : Stack
    public AppStack()
        var cluster = new StackReference($"mycompany/infra/{Deployment.Instance.StackName}");
        var kubeConfig = cluster.RequireOutput("KubeConfig").Apply(v => v.ToString());
        var provider = new Provider("k8s", new ProviderArgs { KubeConfig = kubeConfig });
        var options = new ComponentResourceOptions { Provider = provider };
        var service = new Service(..., ..., options);
package myproject;

import com.pulumi.Context;
import com.pulumi.Exports;
import com.pulumi.Pulumi;

import com.pulumi.core.Output;
import com.pulumi.kubernetes.Provider;
import com.pulumi.kubernetes.ProviderArgs;
import com.pulumi.kubernetes.core_v1.Service;
import com.pulumi.kubernetes.core_v1.ServiceArgs;
import com.pulumi.resources.ComponentResourceOptions;
import com.pulumi.resources.StackReference;

public class App {
    public static void main(String[] args) {;

    public static void stack(Context ctx) {
        var cluster = new StackReference(String.format("mycompany/infra/%s", ctx.stackName()));
        var kubeconfig = cluster.requireOutput(Output.of("KubeConfig")).applyValue(String::valueOf);
        var provider = new Provider("k8s", ProviderArgs.builder().kubeconfig(kubeconfig).build());
        var options = ComponentResourceOptions.builder()
        var service = new Service("app-service", ServiceArgs.builder()
            .build(), options);
  kubeConfig: ${my-stack-reference.outputs["KubeConfig"]}
    type: pulumi:pulumi:StackReference
      name: mycompany/infra/${pulumi.stack}
    type: pulumi:providers:kubernetes
      kubeConfig: kubeConfig
    type: some:resource:type
    properties: ...
      provider: ${provider}

The StackReference constructor takes as input a string of the form <organization>/<project>/<stack>, and lets you access the outputs of that stack.

In the above example, you construct a stack reference to a specific stack in this project which has the same name as your current stack (i.e. when deploying the “staging” stack of the above program, you reference the “staging” stack) from the infra project. Once you have that resource, you can fetch the kubeConfig output variable with the getOutput function. From that point onwards, Pulumi understands the inter-stack dependency for scenarios like cascading updates.

Import and export a stack deployment

A stack can be exported to see the raw data associated with the stack. This is useful when manual changes need to be applied to the stack due to changes made in the target cloud platform that Pulumi is not aware of. The modified stack can then be imported to set the current state of the stack to the new values.

$ pulumi stack export --file stack.json

$ pulumi stack import --file stack.json

Destroy a stack

Before deleting a stack, if the stack still resources associated with it, they must first be deleted via pulumi destroy. This command uses the latest configuration values, rather than the ones that were last used when the program was deployed.

Delete a stack

To delete a stack with no resources, run pulumi stack rm. Removing the stack will remove all stack history from and will delete the stack configuration file Pulumi.<stack-name>.yaml.

To force the deletion of a stack that still contains resources—potentially orphaning them—use pulumi stack rm --force.