The Amazon Web Services (AWS) Cloud ecosystem is large and vibrant, so vast and vibrant that at times, it can be challenging to know where best to start! In the case of containers, Abby Fuller tweeted a descriptive summary about using AWS container services.
AWS Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS) provides a range of performance and control for dynamically scaling your Kubernetes clusters, including Managed Node Groups, Fargate, and Manually-Managed Node Groups in EC2. In this post, we’ll see how to use each of these compute options, and when to prefer one over the other in order to maximize productivity, flexibility, and control, based on your needs.
Kubernetes clusters from the managed platforms of AWS Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS), Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS), and GCP Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) all vary in configuration, management, and resource properties. This variance creates unnecessary complexity in cluster provisioning and application deployments, as well as for CI/CD and testing.
Additionally, if you wanted to deploy the same app across multiple clusters for specific use cases or test scenarios across providers, subtleties such as LoadBalancer outputs and cluster connection settings can be a nuisance to manage.
In this post, we’ll see how to use Pulumi to deploy the
kuard app across EKS,
AKS, GKE and a local Kubernetes cluster, such as Docker Desktop or a self-managed cluster.
We’ll spin up the clusters in each provider, launch the app,
and manage both cluster and app using the TypeScript programming language.
Managed Kubernetes offerings greatly reduce the overhead required in administering Kubernetes. However, the cluster is only one of the components under management, as app lifecycles are self-driven tasks that vary by workloads.
In Kubernetes, node groups are a useful mechanism for creating pools of resources that can enforce scheduling requirements. They also provide a utility for shifting workloads around during cluster management and updates.
In this post, we’ll see how to use Pulumi for Day 2 Kubernetes administration.
We’ll spin up a new EKS cluster with two node groups and a given workload.
Then we’ll add one more node group with an updated configuration, and migrate the workload
over to it with zero downtime using code and
The Amazon Elastic File System Container Storage Interface (CSI) Driver implements the CSI specification for container orchestrators to manage the lifecycle of Amazon EFS filesystems. The CSI specification defines an interface along with the minimum operational and packaging recommendations for a storage provider to implement a CSI compatible plugin. The interface declares the RPCs that a plugin must expose. The CSI drivers are the right mechanism to work with, when using a cloud storage component with Kubernetes workloads.
Kubernetes Ingress is an API object that allows you manage external (or) internal HTTP[s] access to Kubernetes services running in a cluster. Amazon Elastic Load Balancing Application Load Balancer (ALB) is a popular AWS service that load balances incoming traffic at the application layer across multiple targets, such as Amazon EC2 instances, in a region. ALB supports multiple features including host or path based routing, TLS (Transport layer security) termination, WebSockets, HTTP/2, AWS WAF (web application firewall) integration, integrated access logs, and health checks.
The AWS ALB Ingress controller is a Kubernetes SIG-AWS subproject - it was the second sub-project added to SIG-AWS after the aws-authenticator subproject. The ALB Ingress controller triggers the creation of an ALB and the necessary supporting AWS resources whenever a Kubernetes user declares an Ingress resource on the cluster. TargetGroups are created for each backend specified in the Ingress resource. Listeners are created for every port specified as Ingress resource annotation. When no port is specified, sensible defaults (80 or 443) are used. Rules are created for each path specified in your ingress resource. This ensures that traffic to a specific path is routed to the correct TargetGroup.
Amazon offers multiple solutions for running containers in AWS, through its managed Elastic Container Service (ECS). This includes three major approaches: ECS managed automatically with Fargate, ECS backed by EC2 instances, and Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS), delivering the full power of Kubernetes. It’s not always easy to choose between these, so in this article we provide some basic guidance on the tradeoffs you’ll encounter when choosing.
Amazon Web Services provides an incredible platform for developers to build cloud-native applications, and is used by millions of customers of all sizes. The building block services that AWS offers enable teams to offload undifferentiated heavy-lifting to AWS. To maximally benefit from these services though, cloud engineering teams must learn how to compose all of these building blocks together to build and deliver their own applications. Today, this is still too hard. Getting from your laptop to a production-ready AWS deployment frequently takes days or weeks instead of minutes or hours. And AWS building block services frequently leave you to re-implement (and re-discover) best-practices instead of providing these as smart defaults.
Pulumi Crosswalk for AWS is a new open source library of infrastructure-as-code components that make it easier to get from zero to production on AWS, easier to adopt AWS best practices by default, and easier to evolve your AWS infrastructure as your application needs mature.
One of the most common areas Kubernetes operators struggle with in production involves creating and managing role-based access control (RBAC). This is so daunting that RBAC is often not implemented, or implemented halfway, or the configuration becomes impossible to maintain.
Fortunately, Pulumi makes RBAC on Kuberenetes so easy that you’ll never create an insecure cluster again. In this post, we will contrast the traditional way of working with RBAC on EKS with using Pulumi.